Sophie Cooper is a Senior Scientific Adviser at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England. NICE is the independent organisation responsible for providing national guidance and advice. Its core purpose is to help practitioners and commissioners get the best care to patients, fast, while ensuring value for the taxpayer. Sophie leads scientific policy and research activities to improve methods for NICE’s health technology assessments (HTA) and guideline development. She is leading NICE’s contribution to the UK’s new antimicrobial products subscription model (https://www.engage.england.nhs.uk/survey/the-antimicrobial-products-subscription-model/), which seeks to address the market failure of companies not investing in the development of new antimicrobials. It is the first scheme in the world to delink revenue from volume of antimicrobials sold, and instead pay companies a fixed annual fee for antimicrobials based primarily on their expected value.